There are many names for menopause, including menopause, menopause, menopause, menopause, and menopause.

Each of these names has medical, linguistic, and social backgrounds. While the name used in the old days was menopause, some grumbling appeared due to its negative connotation towards a natural stage of a woman’s life cycle. Names were developed, including the age of safety, i.e. safety from the possibility of pregnancy, and institutions have adopted the Professional names menopause or menopause.

Menopause and fertility are natural biological processes and not a disease, and the physical and psychological symptoms of menopause can cause sleep disruption, increased tiredness and lack of energy, and feelings of sadness and loss.

The hormonal changes that occur are the cause of the physical symptoms that appear due to menopause, contrary to the false beliefs that the changes that occur due to menopause are partly caused by psychological changes.

Misconceptions about menopause

False beliefs include the following:

  • Menopause does not mean the end of life is near, half-life is still ahead.
  • Menopause does not destroy femininity and sexuality many women see menopause as an opportunity to break free from the anxiety of pregnancy and menstruation.
  • Menopause is not a disease, but when the symptoms are severe, it is preferable to go for advice and receive treatment, there are many types of treatments from lifestyle fit to hormonal therapies.

Symptoms of menopause

It is well known that menopause comes a year after the last menstruation, but the signs and symptoms of menopause often appear before a year has passed since the last menstruation, and include the following:

  • Irregular menstruation.
  • Low fertility.
  • Vaginal dryness.
  • Heat flashes.
  • mood swings
  • Abdominal weight gain.
  • increased hair loss;
  • breast shrinkage;

Causes and risk factors for menopause

Normally, menopause begins when the ovaries begin to produce less of the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which regulate the menstrual cycle. The sharp and sudden level of progesterone after ovulation that prepares the body for pregnancy becomes lower.

Menopause is considered a natural course of life, but certain procedures such as surgery, certain treatments, or certain medical problems can precipitate menopause and menopause. These include:

1. Hysterectomy

In general, with a hysterectomy without the ovaries, the menstrual cycle does not stop, although menstruation does not appear, the ovaries continue to release eggs and produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

But when the uterus and ovaries are removed, the menstrual cycle stops, and there is no pre-menopausal stage, where menstruation stops immediately, and most likely, heat flashes appear in the patient, and other symptoms of menopause also appear.

2. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy

These treatment methods in cancer patients may lead to amenorrhea and the emergence of some symptoms such as hot flashes for the duration of the treatment period or up to 3-6 months after the end of treatment.

Sometimes amenorrhea is the result of the ovaries stopping prematurely from working, and the ovaries stopping working before the age of forty is the result of genetic causes or autoimmune diseases, but sometimes the cause may not be known.

Complications of menopause

Complications include the following:

1. Heart disease

When the estrogen level is low, the risk of cardiovascular disease increases and heart disease in men and women is the number one cause of death.

However, the risk of heart disease can be significantly reduced, and steps that help reduce the risk include: quitting smoking, lowering high blood pressure, exercising regularly, and following a diet low in saturated fat and rich in grains, fruits, and vegetables.

2. Osteoporosis

During the first years following menopause, a decrease in bone density is likely, which increases the risk of osteoporosis, osteoporosis leads to osteoporosis and a high risk of fractures in women, and in the post-menopausal period, there is a risk of pelvic fractures The wrist and spine.

Therefore, it is necessary during this period to maintain the level of calcium and vitamin D, and it is also important to exercise continuously, as body-strengthening exercises, which include exerting effort, walking, and running, are especially useful for maintaining strong bones.

3. Urinary incontinence

This is because the vagina and uterus lose their elasticity, and there may be a sudden and frequent need to urinate accompanied by urinary incontinence or incontinence while coughing, laughing or lifting something.

4. Obesity

Many women get fatter during menopause, and sometimes to maintain a normal weight, you need to reduce calories and increase exercise.

Diagnosing menopause

The signs and symptoms of menopause are the indicators that herald the start of the menopause process. If the menstrual cycle becomes irregular or hot flashes appear, a doctor should be consulted, and in some cases, it is better to perform some of the following medical tests:

  • A blood test to determine the level of ovarian stimulating hormone, and an examination of the level of estrogen. During menopause, the level of ovarian stimulating hormone rises and the level of estradiol decreases.
  • a blood test to determine the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone; Because a decreased thyroid function can cause symptoms similar to those of menopause.

Menopause treatment

Menopause itself does not require any medical treatment. Treatments depend on alleviating the accompanying symptoms and preventing or alleviating chronic diseases that may occur with age.

Menopause treatments include:

  • Hormone therapy, such as estrogen therapy, is the most effective treatment for relieving hot flashes.
  • Low doses of antidepressant drugs.
  • Gabapentin is primarily used as an anticonvulsant and is effective in treating some cases of hot flashes.
  • Bisphosphonates for the prevention of osteoporosis.
  • Hormone-modifying drugs (modulators), such as estrogen receptors.
  • Vaginal estrogen relieves vaginal dryness. Estrogen can be used topically in the form of vaginal tablets or ointments.

Prevention of menopause

Menopause cannot be prevented; It is a normal condition that occurs in the body at a certain age.

Alternative therapies

There are many ways to relieve menopausal symptoms, including the following:

1. Phyto-Estrogen

These are estrogen hormones that are naturally present in some foods. There are two main types of phytoestrogens: Isoflavones and Lignans.

Isoflavones are found in soybeans, chickpeas and other legumes, and lignans are found in flaxseeds, cereals, and some fruits and vegetables, but it is not yet clear if estrogen in foods can relieve heat flashes and menopausal symptoms. They act as little on the body as estrogen, so there is concern that they may increase the risk of cancer.

Women with breast cancer should consult their doctor before using isoflavones as a supplement, and experts prefer foods containing soy and isoflavones as healthy and safe foods provided they are consumed in moderation.

2. Black Cohosh

It is widely used in Europe to treat hot flashes and is popular among women with menopausal symptoms. Its use is safe, but there is no proven evidence that it is effective in relieving menopausal symptoms.