occurs when blood flow to one part of the brain is interrupted or interrupted, depriving brain tissue of much-needed oxygen and other vital nutrients, and as a result, brain cells die within a few minutes.

Stroke is a medical emergency, and prompt treatment is critical, as it can minimize damage to the brain and prevent potential complications after a stroke.

Stroke types

There are two main types of stroke, get to know them:

1. Ischemic stroke

This type accounts for about 80% of strokes, and this stroke occurs when the arteries of the brain are narrowed or blocked, causing a significant decrease in the amount of blood supplied to the brain, and this prevents the brain from being supplied with oxygen and various nutrients, which leads to the death of brain cells within a few minutes.

The most common types of ischemic stroke are:

  • thrombotic stroke

This type of stroke occurs when a clot (Thrombus) forms in one of the arteries responsible for supplying blood to the brain. It occurs in one of the two arteries of the head at the back of the neck and responsible for supplying blood to the brain, like other arteries in the neck and brain region.

  • embolic stroke

This type of stroke occurs when a clot or another particle forms inside a blood vessel far from the brain in the heart area, and the blood stream sweeps it with it until it lodges in a narrow blood vessel in the area of ​​the brain, and this type of clot is called an embolus, this condition arises As a result of arrhythmias in one of the two upper chambers of the heart, such as  atrial  fibrillation, which leads to an imbalance in the blood supply and the formation of clots.

2. Hemorrhagic stroke


This stroke occurs when one of the blood vessels in the brain begins to bleed or rupture, this bleeding may occur as a result of some medical conditions that affect the blood vessels, such as: untreated high blood pressure and aneurysm, and another less common cause of bleeding is ruptured vessels Blood vessel, an  arteriovenous malformation  (AMV – arteriovenous malformation) is that some blood vessels are thin-walled, causing them to rupture easily.

There are two types of hemorrhagic stroke:

  • intracerebral hemorrhage

In this type of stroke, a blood vessel inside the brain ruptures, causing blood to flow into the surrounding brain tissue, causing damage to brain cells. Also, the brain cells behind the leak do not get a regular supply of blood and are damaged.
Over time, high blood pressure can cause a stroke, and high blood pressure can make the small blood vessels inside the brain more fragile and more likely to rupture.

  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage

In this type of stroke, bleeding begins in one of the large arteries or in the area of ​​the surface of the brain, and blood flows into the space between the brain and the skull, and is accompanied by a very strong and sudden headache.

This type of stroke is often caused by the rupture or dissection of one or more aneurysms that may form and enlarge over time, or may be congenital.

After the bleeding begins, the blood vessels in the brain may expand and narrow in an irregular manner, which can cause damage to cells by further reducing the blood supply to other parts of the brain.

Stroke symptoms

The following early symptoms should be noted:

  • walking difficulties

If a person has a stroke, he may stumble, feel dizzy, lose his balance or lose coordination between the senses such as movement and speech.

  • Difficulty speaking

If a person has a stroke, they may become slurred, or they may lose the ability to find the right words to describe what is happening to them and to them.

Try repeating a simple sentence. If you can’t do that, you may be having a stroke.

  • Paralysis or numbness on one side of the body

If a person has a stroke, they may lose sensation or feel hemiparalysis on one side of the body.

Try to raise both arms above your head at the same time, if one of them begins to fall, you may have a stroke.

  • vision difficulties

If a person has a stroke, he may suffer from sudden blurring of vision, and may lose vision for a few moments, and may suffer from double vision .

  • headache

A headache that appears suddenly and without warning, or an unusual headache, which may be accompanied by a stiff neck, facial pain, pain between the eyes, sudden vomiting, or changes in cognitive status, sometimes may indicate a stroke .

  • TIA – Transient ischemic attack

A transient ischemic attack is a temporary disruption of the blood supply to one part of the brain.
The symptoms of a transient ischemic attack are the same as those of a stroke, but they last for a shorter period of time, from a few minutes to 24 hours, and then fade and go away without leaving any permanent damage. A person may have more than one transient ischemic attack, which increases the risk of a stroke.

Stroke causes and risk factors

There are many causes and factors that increase the risk of stroke, know them:

Stroke causes

A stroke occurs if there is a problem or a defect in the amount of blood flowing to the brain. The causes of stroke vary according to its type, as follows:

  • Delivering a small amount of blood to the brain in an ischemic stroke.
  • An excess of blood in the skull during a hemorrhagic stroke.

Factors that increase the risk of stroke

Risk factors for having a stroke include:

  • Age: People over 55 years old.
  • High blood pressure : If the systolic pressure is 140 mm Hg or more, or the diastolic pressure is 90 mm Hg or more.
  • High cholesterol : If the level of cholesterol in the blood is 200 milligrams per deciliter or more.
  • Smoking:  Smoking increases the risk of stroke.
  • Diabetes : High blood sugar can cause a stroke.
  • Obesity : If the BMI value is 30 or more
  • Cardiovascular disease : including heart failure, heart defect, inflammation of the heart, and irregular heartbeat.
  • Previous stroke or transient ischemic attack : This increases the risk of a severe stroke.
  • High levels of homocysteine , a type of amino acid.
  • Use of birth control pills or other hormonal therapy: It was found that there is a relationship between hormone therapy and the risk of stroke .

Although the rates of stroke are the same for women and men, women are more likely than men to die from a stroke, and black people are more likely to have a stroke than people of other races.

Stroke complications

Depending on the length of time the brain has been in short supply, a stroke can cause a variety of disabilities that may be temporary or permanent.

Possible complications as a result of a stroke vary depending on which part of the brain is affected, and include:

  • Paralysis or loss of the ability to move muscles.
  • Difficulty speaking or swallowing.
  • Memory loss or problems with general understanding.
  • Aches.

People who have a stroke sometimes become introverted and less socially involved, may lose the ability to take care of themselves, and may need nursing care to help them with daily tasks, such as personal hygiene and others.

Stroke diagnosis

The following tests are the most common screening tests that can determine the degree of risk of having a stroke, but they can also serve as a diagnostic tool, if a person has had a stroke:

  • Physical examination.
  • Ultrasound of the carotid artery (Arteria carotis).
  • Arteriography.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Echocardiography.

Stroke treatment

Receiving immediate and urgent medical aid immediately after a stroke is very vital and crucial, and the type of treatment depends on the type of stroke, as follows:

1. Treatment of ischemic stroke

To treat an ischemic stroke, doctors must restore the brain’s blood supply as soon as possible.
Drugs to encourage blood clotting should be given within three hours of the first symptoms of a stroke, and prompt treatment not only increases the chances of survival, but can help reduce complications that may result from a stroke.

Your doctor may recommend surgery to open  partially or completely a blocked artery , including:

  • Open artery (CEA).
  • Placement of a flexible mesh stent within the stricture.

2. Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke

Surgery may be useful in treating a hemorrhagic stroke or in preventing a future stroke.
A doctor may recommend any of these procedures if a person is at high and increased risk of aneurysms or ruptured blood vessels:

  • Aneurysm clipping.
  • Twisting, twisting or tying the aneurysm.
  • Removal of  malformed blood vessels .

Stroke prevention

It is recommended to follow all prevention methods to prevent stroke.

1. Home preventive methods

To prevent a stroke, it is recommended to follow a healthy lifestyle that includes:

  • Treating high blood pressure.
  • Reduce consumption of foods rich in cholesterol and fats.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • Diabetes treatment.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Treating psychological stress.
  • Avoid alcoholic beverages.
  • Avoid drugs .
  • Maintain a balanced and healthy diet.

2. Medication prevention

If a person has had an ischemic stroke, a doctor may encourage them to take medications to reduce the risk of a TIA, such as aspirin .
If aspirin therapy doesn’t reduce the risk of a transient ischemic attack, or if the person is unable to take aspirin, the doctor may prescribe other blood-thinning medications.

Alternative therapies

There is no herbal cure for stroke, but some herbs may reduce blood clotting and clotting, including:

  • turmeric;
  • ginger;
  • Red pepper.
  • Ginkgo biloba.
  • the Garlic.
  • cinnamon;